The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union.
The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.
In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952.
As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)".
A new capital is planned to be developed between Guntur and Vijaywada.
As per 2011 Census of India, the state is tenth-largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants.
On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of the state was bifurcated to form a new state of Telangana.